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Basic Robot

Robot is a elector-mechanical device controlled by computer program.A micro controller is the brain of Robot  as it is able to execute a program and decide action to achieve desired goal based on written program.

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Required Components

  1. Bread Board.
  2. Connecting wires.
  3. Castor wheel.
  4. Robot Wheel.
  5. Robot Chasis.
  6. Motor Driver l293d.
  7. DC Geared or BO motor
  8. Arduino
  9. Battery
  10. LM7805
  11. Switch
  12. Capacitors 470uf & 100uf

PARTS  OF ROBOT

MICROCONTROLLER

A microcontroller is the main part where we upload the computer program in chip to perform the desired action by robot. Usually we use Arduino, whereas  Arduino is a  development board that contains a microcontroller typical an 8-bit AVR such as the ATmega8, ATmega168, ATmega328, ATmega1280, and ATmega2560  etc..

MOTOR

Motors are machine that could convert electrical energy into physical motion while motor drivers act as the intermediate device between a microcontroller and motors. It provides the current at the required voltage and works together with microcontrollers to make the motors move appropriately. In basic robot it moves forward,reverse, left, right and stop for certain delay.

DC Motor

L293D MOTOR DRIVER

L293D is a dual H-bridge, 16 pin IC, with eight pins on each side, dedicated to the controlling of a motor.With the help of L293D we can control two motors. 

l293d IC

 Pin Diagram:

BATTERY

Battery is used to provide supply to controller and motor driver, mostly 12v lithium ion batteries are used for better efficiency.    

Lithium ion battery

CHASSIS

Chassis is the body of robot where we place  PCB or general purpose or bread board, components and parts that are interfaced and connected to it.

WHEEL

Wheel acts like legs for Robot. The Wheels can be mounted on shafts connected to motors or gearboxes.

Robot Wheel

CASTOR WHEEL

With the help of wheel robot moves in forward or backward without any problem but if robot wants to move left or right it needs support,so to provide differential drive castor wheel is used. 

MOTOR LOGIC TABLE

Basic Robot Logic Table

Pin Mapping

 Between Arduino and L293D

Between Motor and L293D

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

FLOW CHART:

Program:

#define LEFT_MOTOR1 1
#define LEFT_MOTOR2 2
#define RIGHT_MOTOR1 3
#define RIGHT_MOTOR2 4
void setup()
{
/* Motor Pin Configuration */
pinMode(LEFT_MOTOR1,OUTPUT);
pinMode(LEFT_MOTOR2,OUTPUT);
pinMode(RIGHT_MOTOR1,OUTPUT);
pinMode(RIGHT_MOTOR2,OUTPUT);
}


void loop()
{
/* Move Forward */
digitalWrite(LEFT_MOTOR1,HIGH);
digitalWrite(LEFT_MOTOR2,LOW);
digitalWrite(RIGHT_MOTOR1,HIGH);
digitalWrite(RIGHT_MOTOR2,LOW);
/* Move Left */
digitalWrite(LEFT_MOTOR1,LOW);
digitalWrite(LEFT_MOTOR2,HIGH);
digitalWrite(RIGHT_MOTOR1,HIGH);
digitalWrite(RIGHT_MOTOR2,LOW);
/* Move Right */
digitalWrite(LEFT_MOTOR1,HIGH);
digitalWrite(LEFT_MOTOR2,LOW);
digitalWrite(RIGHT_MOTOR1,LOW);
digitalWrite(RIGHT_MOTOR2,HIGH);
/* Move Reverse */
digitalWrite(LEFT_MOTOR1,LOW);
digitalWrite(LEFT_MOTOR2,HIGH);
digitalWrite(RIGHT_MOTOR1,LOW);
digitalWrite(RIGHT_MOTOR2,HIGH);
} 

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